11 septembre 9/11 aaron klein abbas abdallah abdallah II abdelkader merah accords d'oslo adam zertal adenauer affaires Ă©trangĂ¨res afghanistan africom afrique afrique du sud ahmadinejad aipac AKP al qaeda al qaida al-arabiya al-fayed al-qaida algĂ©rie algeria aliyah allemagne amĂ©rique america anavad ANC angela merkel ankara ansar dine antisĂ©mitisme antisemitism antizionism apartheid aqmi arabes arabes israĂ©liens arabie saoudite arabs arafat armĂ©e armĂ©niens army ashkenazy assad assemblĂ©e gĂ©nĂ©rale assyriens atatĂĽrk auschwitz autoritĂ© palestinienne autriche-hongrie ayrault azawad Ă©conomie Ă©glise Ă©gypte Ă©lections Ă©tat Ă©tats-unis Ă©vangĂ©liques bachman baker balkans balladur bangladesh bankruptcy banlieues barack obama barak barbares bat yeor bayrou begin beheading beilin belgique belgium bennet benoĂ®t xvi berbĂ¨res bernheim bible biden bill clinton blancs blood libel BNVCA bourgine brĂ©sil brexit britain brzezinski burke bush byzantins cahuzac cameron canada carter Castro cfr chaos charlie hebdo Chavez cheney chiisme chiites china chine chirac chosroes ii chrĂ©tiens christianisme christianity christians church chypre circumcision cisjordanie citizenship claude guĂ©ant clĂ©menceau clermont-tonnerre clinton cnn CNRS colin powell cologne columbia commentary communautĂ© communism communisme communistes confĂ©rence de la paix confrĂ©ries congrĂ¨s conseil de sĂ©curitĂ© conservatism conservative conservatives consistoire constantinople constitution contestation coptes coran corĂ©e du nord corsica crif crime crise crise sociale cuba cuisine cukierman culture daesh daniel johnson daniel pearl david pryce-jones dĂ©mocrates dĂ©mocratie dĂ©mographie de gasperi de gaulle democrats demographics demography deng desportes dhimmis dhimmitude dieudonnĂ© dinard djihad dollar doxa dreyfus droit international droite droits de l'homme druzes egypte eilat mazar eisenhower election elections emanuel emigration empire ottoman ena enderlin enfants erbakan erdogan espagne etat etats-unis ethnic ethnie EU eurabia eurasia eureka euro europe european parliament european union exode expulsion expulsions fabius facebook far left far right fatah fayĂ§al ferdinand ferhat fethullah gĂĽlen fifth republic fillon finkielkraut flandre flotille fmi FN fondapol food foreign affairs foreign policy france franco frĂ¨res musulmans french french muslims front national frontiĂ¨re internationale fusion antisemitism gates gauche gaza gĂ©nĂ©tique gĂ©nocide gĂ©opolitique genĂ¨se general assembly genocide geopolitics george soros george w. bush george washington germany ghozlan gingrich giscard d'estaing giuliani globalization golden age goldnadel goldstone gorbatchev grande-bretagne grĂ¨ce greece greens grippe espagnole guĂ©ant guĂ©rilla guerre guerre civile guerre de sĂ©cession gurfinkiel hallal halutz hamas hamon haredim harkabi hĂ©breux hekla herzl herzog hezbollah hillary clinton hillel halkin histoire history hitler hollande holocaust holocauste houellebecq HUJI hungary huntsman hurvah hypercasher ibn saoud icm research idĂ©ologie identitĂ© nationale ifop iforas iiie rĂ©publique ilan halimi immigrants immigration implantations inĂ¶nĂĽ inde ined internet interview irak iran irgoun isabelle ISIS islam islamic state islamism islamisme islamistes islamists israĂ©lites israĂ«l israel israel beiteinu italie ivan de bloch j call j street jabotinsky japon jĂ©rusalem jĂĽnger jean paul II jean-marie le pen jerusalem jewish revival jews jihad jihadism jihadisme jihadistes jihadists john mccain johnson jordanie jour de colĂ¨re judaĂŻsme judĂ©o-christianisme juifs juifs amĂ©ricains juppĂ© kabylie kadhafi kadima kadimah kassam kemal kennedy kerry kgb khamenei khomeini kim kippour kissinger knesset kohl korsia kosher kosher supermarket kosovo kotel kouchner l'express l'obs la paix maintenant laĂŻcitĂ© lapid ldj le drian le monde le nouvel observateur le pen le point lebanon left leftwing Levant liban libĂ©raux liberation libertariens libertĂ© libye liebermann ligne verte likoud likud livni livres london louis xvi LR lyons macarthur maccain macron magoudi mahmoud abbas mai 1968 mali mandala mandat mandela mao marcion marcionisme marine le pen marines marion marĂ©chal-le pen maroc maronites marseilles massacres massortis mavi marmara mayflower mayotte mĂ©dias mĂ©lanchon mccain media medias mein kampf mer morte mer noire merah meretz mergui merkel mexique michel gurfinkiel middle east migrants migration missiles mitterrand mnla mohamed merah monarchie monarchy monde arabe monde islamique monod mont du temple montauban montebourg montesquieu morocco morsi mosaic moscovici moubarak moyen-orient munich murder muslims musulmans napolĂ©on napoleon naqba nasser natalitĂ© national assembly national front nations unies nato nazis neo-french netanyahu nethanyahu new emerging powers new york new york review of books new york times nicolas sarkozy nixon noĂ«l nobel noirs north america norvĂ¨ge nouvel observateur november 13 NPA nuclĂ©aire obama occident occupation odessa oliganthropie olmert olp onfray onu opinion orban orient orthodoxes oslo otan ottomans pacifisme pahlavi paix pakistan palestine palestinians palestiniens palin panislamisme pape paradigme paradigmes paris paritĂ© parlement europĂ©en partition pĂ©tain pĂ©trole pence peres peripheral france perses peste antonine peste de justinien petraeus peuple juif pew pipes PLO pogrom pogroms poland police politique poll pologne pompidou populism portugal poutine prĂ©sidentielle prĂ©sidentielles premier tour presidential election primaires primaries printemps arabe processus de paix proche-orient prophĂ¨te proportional representation protestantisme PS pundak putin qaradawi quai d'orsay quartiers quenelle qumran rabbis rabin racism rahm emanuel raid rajoy rasmussen rĂ©formĂ©s rĂ©formes rĂ©fugiĂ©s rĂ©publicains rĂ©volution reagan refugees regional elections religieux religion rempart renaud camus republican pacts republicans restaurants revolution right riots riyad rogers romains romney ron paul roosevelt roquette rosenfeld rouhani royal royaume-uni russia russie rwanda sadate sahara salafistes salem al-fayed sanctuaire du rocher sandler santorum sarah halimi sarkozy saudi arabia savir sĂ©golĂ¨ne royal sĂ©nat sĂ©pharades scandale SCO SDN seconde guerre mondiale security council selden senate shafik shalit shalom akhshav shamir sharon shas shoah sionisme sionistes socialist socialists sociĂ©tĂ© society sondages soral soviet union spcj ss staline state nobility state of emergency statism stratĂ©gie strauss-kahn strikes subworlds succession sunnites sweden sykes-picot synagogue syria syrie tahrir tardieu tariq ramadan taubira tel-aviv terre d'israĂ«l terror terrorism terrorisme thatcher the west time tocqueville torah totalitarisme toulouse tourisme travaillistes trevidic tribus trilatĂ©rale truman trump tsahal tsipras tunisie turkey turquie tv ue uk ukraine UMP un unesco union europĂ©enne union pour la mĂ©diterranĂ©e united nations united states unrwa URSS US usa valeurs actuelles valeurs judĂ©o-chrĂ©tiennes valls vatican vĂ©drine ve rĂ©publique versailles veto vichy vietnam violence walter laqueur war washington washington post wastelands west wilson women wright yellow vests yemen zacharie zapatero
Friday, April 24 2015
1915-2015 : A Century Of Barbarity
In the Middle East, the main victims were Christians and Jews.
Bshara Nassar - a self-described « peacebuilder and social entrepreneur, a graduate of Bethlehem University, Palestine », with « a master's degree in Conflict Transformation from Eastern Mennonite University » - leads a campaign for a « Nakba Museum Project of Memory and Hope » in order to « bring the Palestinian refugee story to Washington, DC ».
The campaign, supported by Nonviolence International With Nakba Museum and Indiegogo, a crowd-funding organization, was launched in 2014 and seems to enjoy
Crime, including political crime and politically or militarily motivated mass murder, is usually a mean to achieve some higher purpose or to bring about some practical benefit. For instance, the Ottoman rationale in 1915 was to « remove » the Armenian minority from Turkish Anatolia, in order to prevent a pro-Russian Armenian uprising and to achieve geostrategic cohesion. They had no further « racial » or metaphysical concern : the few Armenians who converted to islam were spared ; many Armenian orphans were adopted by Turkish families and raised as Turks.
As far as the Holocaust was concerned, however, crime was an end unto itself. No Jew, under the Nazi genocidal project, was allowed to survive, neither by renouncing Judaism nor even as a pariah or a slave ; and in fact, very few Jews, in the Nazi-controled areas, managed to survive. Moreover, the annihilation of the Jews was to take precedence over Germany’s strategic considerations, and did actually divert and waste throughout WW2 crucial resources in manpower, energy and transportation needed by German forces. Finally, the Jews were not just to be murdered : they had to be murdered in the most gruesome and sadistic way, not just with physical crualty but with moral or mental cruelty as well.
This is why the memory of the Holocaust – and knowledge of the Holocaust - is so important today ; why so many nations, including present day Germany, devote so much attention to it ; and why there is an U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. The more one remembers such an ultimate tragedy and crime, the more one remembers – and understands – other tragedies and other crimes.
Pope Francis rightly marked, on April 12, the one hundredth anniversary of the Armenian genocide. So did, on April 15, the European Parliament. The Armenian tragedy was however almost forgotten or ignored for decades, even among European Christians : it took the new context shaped by the Holocaust memorial effort to bring it back to full exposure. In fact, Holocaust Memorial Museums all over the world tend by now to educate the public about all genocides. An exhibition about the Armenians was just inaugurated at the French National Shoah Museum in Paris.
Indeed, Arab Palestinians underwent tremendous ordeals in the 20th century. Still, the Nakba was not the Holocaust. It does not even compare to most other collective tragedies in the 20th and early 21st centuries.
For the sake of clarity and decency, one must delineate between : (a) genocides (documented attempts to wipe off a race or a nation) ; (b) non-genocidal mass murders ; (c) enslavement of large numbers of people ; (d) planned dispossession and expulsion of large numbers of people ; (e) secondary effects of wars and other crisis. In that order.
The Holocaust qualifies under point (a). So do the starvation program against the Hereros (in German South West Africa shortly before WW1), and the further genocidal operations against the Armenians, the Iraqi Chaldeans, the Black minority in the Dominican Republic, the Roma/Sinti in Europe, the Tutsis in Rwanda.
The Soviet, Red Chinese and Khmer Rouge domestic massacres qualify under point (b), as well as the Nazi treatment of « inferior » European nations (like the Poles), the Japanese atrocities in China, and many further ethnic and religious massacres in the Balkans, South Asia and Africa.
The African trade slave and the slavery regimes in both the Islamic countries and the Christian colonies in the Americas and elsewhere qualify under point (c). So do massive slave work programs in the Soviet Union, in Nazi Germany, in Maoist China and in present day North Korea.
The US treatment of many Native Americans in the 19th century, the French treatment of Kabyles in Algeria in 1871, the alternate expulsion of Turks, Greeks and Turks again between 1912 and 1923, the expulsion of Poles and French from areas slated for German colonization during WW2, the expulsion of ethnic Germans from East Prussia, Transoderian Germany and Czechoslovakia in 1945, the mass anti-Christian pogroms in Turkey in 1955, the expulsion of Christians and Jews from Arab or Islamic countries from 1956 on (Egypt, North Africa, the Middle East), the expulsion of ethnic Greeks from Northern Cyprus, qualify under point (d).
The Nakba should be chiefly considered under point (e) : the mass flight of Arab Palestinians was a collateral outcome of the first Arab-Israeli war, which was initiated by the Arab Palestinian leadership of the day and six Arab nations. Even so, Arab Palestinian refugees, while often unwelcome in neighboring Arab countries, were given a privileged status by the United Nations and have been able to retain it on an hereditary basis to this day. As an average, UNRWA, the United Nations agency that deals exclusively with Palestinian refugees, has been getting one third of the global United Nations budgets for refugees over a period of almost seventy years.
It is noteworthy that most Muslim victims come also under point (e), whereas Muslim powers acted criminally in many instances under points (a), (c) and (d). Likewise, it should be stressed that, throughout the 1915-2015 period, Christians have been the largest victim group in the Middle East under points (a), (d) and (e), followed by Jews under points (d) and (e).
© Michel Gurfinkiel & PJMedia, 2015
Michel Gurfinkiel is the Founder and President of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute, a conservative think-thank in France, and a Shillman/Ginsburg Fellow at Middle East Forum.
Display comments as (Linear | Threaded)